Why in Bible times was the role of pastor always filled by a man?
My understanding is that religious leaders were men rather than women because all of society was androcentric, or male focused. That fact was true not only for the people of Israel, but for the people throughout Mesopotamia. It may not be surprising to find that as Judaism and Christianity evolved in such an environment, they became androcentric, or patriarchal in nature as well. It simply reflected the water they were swimming in and the air they were breathing. And the fact that women had so few rights helps explain the concern the prophets and Jesus held for widows; they were among the poor and dispossessed without the men on whom society had made them dependent.
During the time of the Old Testament, only men who were descended from the tribe of Levi, the tribe of Moses and Aaron could be priests, and they had to be the first-born males in their families. Simply being male did not qualify a man to be a priest. Only specific males could be priests.
The situation changed for early Christians after the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. Initially after the death and resurrection of Jesus, his followers thought of themselves as Jews and not as creators of a new religion. Worship was conducted in the homes of believers, and neither the roles such as deacons and bishops, nor the hierarchy that exists in the church today existed at first. Some prominent women participated in worship, but it doesn’t appear that they led worship as the church was evolving.
Disciples of Christ today are among the denominations who affirm the gifts that women have for ministry. Eureka Christian Church is blessed with such women, and our Regional Minister and our General Minister and President are capable and extraordinary women who faithfully serve us well.